THE BOTANICAL, MEDICAL, PHARMACOLOGICAL, ETHNOLOGICAL INFORMATION ABOUT HERBS

RHODIOLA ROSEA

 
There are about 20 plant species of the genus Rhodiola. According to clinical studies, Siberian Rhodiola rosea root is the most biologically active.
 

1

Monograph
Rhodiola rosea
Description, Active constituents, Mechanisms of Action, Clinical Indications (Chronic Stress, Cancer), Side Effects and Toxicity, Dosage, References.

2

Rhodiola rosea Rhodiola rosea is an adaptogen (as defined by Israel Brekhman, PhD) that has been shown to raise oxygen partition in arteries and blood saturation level and to lower blood viscosity while enhancing peripheral circulation. It improved total circulation, oxygen uptake, and nutrient transport to the tissues while preventing hypoxy-related free radical generation.

Rhodiola rosea root
Pharmacopoeia Article

Collected in the flowering and fruiting stage, cleaned and washed of soil, cut into pieces and dried rootstocks and roots of perennial, wild, herbaceous plant of rose-root Stonecrop (Rhodiola rosea L.) of the family of Crassulaceae.

Appearance Indications

Mill Stock.

Pieces of rootstocks and roots of different shapes. Rootstock pieces up to 9cm long and 2-5cm thick are hard and rugate with traces of died off stalks and remnants of squamiform leaves. From the rootstocks branch off few roots 2-9cm long and 0.5-1cm thick. Rootstock and root surface is glossy and of grayish-brown color; on peeling off of cork is found a golden-yellow layer. Fracture color is rosy-brown or light brown. Odor is peculiar and resembles the odor of a rose. Taste is bitterish-astringent.

Mill Stock.

Rootstock and root pieces of different shapes passing through a 7mm sieve. The color is rosy-brown. Odor is peculiar and resembles the odor of a rose. Taste is bitterish-astringent.

Microscopy

On the rootstock cross cut is seen a schistous periderm. Rootstock structure is of fascicular type. Duct fascicles are open, collateral, fusiform, ring-shaped, rootstock periphery-oriented by phloem and center-oriented by xylem. There may be available the second ring of smaller duct fascicles, in which phloem is center-oriented, while xylem is periphery-oriented. Rootstock parenchyma consists of large cells filled by starch. Starch grains are simple, round or oval, 5-20m in diameter.

Qualitative Reactions

Into a 20ml flask is put 1 gram of mill stock (see Section Quantitative Determination), then add 10ml of methyl alcohol and heat on water bath at 65C for 20 minutes with a reflux condenser. Extract is filtered through a paper filter. On the starting line of Silufol* plate UV-254 with a micropipette is applied 0.002ml of resultant filtrate. The plate with the applied sample is placed into a chamber which is previously saturated with solvents mixture (chloroform-methyl alcohol-water (26:14:3)) for not less than 24 hours and chromatograph by the ascending method.
When the solvent front passes about 13cm, the plate is taken out of the chamber, dries in air for 5 minutes and looked through UV light at 254nm wavelength. On the chromatogram must appear a dominating spot of violet color with R1 constituting about 0.4 (rosavine); it is possible to have available other spots.
The chromatogram is sprinkled with a 10% solution of sodium carbonate ...
... at 110C for 2 minutes, then sprinkle with diazotized sulfacyl and heat at 110C for 2 minutes. On the chromatogram must appear a spot of rosy color with R1 constituting about 0.42 (salidrozide); it is possible to have available other spots.
* transliterated from Russian

Note:

Preparation of plates:
Sulifol UV-254, 15 by 15cm plates are cut across application lines into three 15 by 5cm parts and before application the extracts are dried in a drying cabinet at 110C for 1 hour.

Numerical Indicators

Solid Stock.

Salidrozide: not less than 0.8%; moisture content: not more than 13%; general ash content: not more than 9%; other parts of the plant (leaves, stalks, including those separated during analysis): not more than 4%; organic admixture: not more than 1%; mineral admixture: not more than 3%.

Mill Stock.

Salidrozide: not less than 0.8%; moisture content: not more than 12%; general ash content: not more than 8%; particles failing to pass through a 7mm sieve: not more than 10%; particles passing through a 0.5mm sieve: not more than 2%; organic admixture: not more than 1%; mineral admixture: not more than 3%.

Quantitative Determination

A stock analytical sample up to the size of particles passing through a 2mm sieve. About 0.5 gram (precise weight) of mill stock is put into a 100ml flask, then add 10ml of water and heat on boiling water bath with a reflux condenser for 15 minutes.
Then the extract is filtered through a paper filter into a 50ml measuring flask avoiding getting stock particles on the filter. Extraction is repeated again 3 times by 10ml water, heating each time for 10 minutes and filtering into the same measuring flask.
To the cooled filtrate is added 6ml of 10% solution of lead acetate, 2ml of saturated solution of sodium sulfate, then thoroughly mix, bringing the volume of the solution with water up to the mark and filter through a paper filter. The first 15ml of filtrate is discarded.
Into a 25ml measuring flask is transferred 5ml of resultant filtrate, add 2.5ml of 2% solution of sodium carbonate, 2.5ml of diazotized sulfanyl, bringing the volume of the solution with water up to the mark, mix and in 5 minutes measure the optical density on a spectrophotometer at 486nm wavelength in a cuvette with the layer 10mm thick, using water as a reference solution.
The content of salidrozide in terms of absolutely dry stock in percentage terms (X) should be computed from the formula:

                    D 250 100
     X = ---------------------------- ,
               253 m (100 - W)

where:  
D
- Optical density of solution under analysis;
253
- Specific index of absorption (E ... ) of salidrozide;
m
- Stock mass in grams;
W
- Mass loss during stock drying in percentage terms.

Notes:

1. Preparation of diazotized sulfanyl:

7 grams of sodium sulfanyl is dissolved in 50ml of water in a 100ml measuring flask, add 9ml of concentrated hydrocarbon acid and bring the volume of the solution with water to the mark, then 1ml of resultant solution is put into a 100ml measuring flask, put it on ice, add 50ml of water, 0.2ml of 10% solution of sodium nitrite, mix and bring the volume of the solution with water to the mark. The solution should be used fresh.

2. Preparation of saturated solution of sodium sulfate:

60 grams of sodium sulfate is filled with 100ml of water and leave, while frequently shaking, for 24 hours.

Packing

Solid stock is packed in fabric bales of not more than 50kg net weight or in fabric or flax-jute-hemp bags of not more than 30kg net weight; mill stock is packed in fabric or flax-jute-hemp bags of not more than 30kg net weight.

Shelf Life:

3 years.

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